The plant produces clusters of flowers at the end of a peduncle (flower stalk) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle. Rar. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. Cover the seeds slightly with soil and sprinkle water on them. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. There are roughly 6–13 seeds per pod growing within spongy tissue. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. [51] CpTI is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a commercially available genetically modified crop. Leaves are trifoliate, 2.5 to 12.5 centimeters long. [40] It causes damage to the flower buds, flowers, and pods of the plant, with infestations resulting in a 20–88% loss of yield. Introduction. It is estimated that cowpea supplies about 40% of the daily protein requirements to most of the people in Nigeria (Muleba ., 1997). It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, is a climbing annual in the family Fabaceae grown for its edible seeds and pods.The cowpea plant is usually erect and possess ribbed stems and smooth trifoliate leaves which are arranged alternately on the stems. Characterization, evaluation and selection of cowpea germplasm accessions is a pre-requisite in any plant breeding programme. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. The best holes are 2 inches deep and are placed 6 inches apart and 24 inches between rows. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). It is a valuable crop as it is a highly palatable food source and the whole plant can be used as forage for animals. Pollen analysis showed similarities in the pollen morphology of the cowpea varieties. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. However, Insects visiting cowpea flowers have been implicated in the movement of pollen from one cowpea plant to another. [71] The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. Cowpea is widely distributed in regions of tropical and temperate climates, thus differing morphologically (shape, size, colour of seed coat) and in proximate composition, hence effecting physicochemical characteristics. The corn, the coffee beans, the hen that laid the egg, and even the cow that produced the milk—all had their origin in the fauna and flora of the tropical forest. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. Graphic design of a cowpea plant Fruits are pods that vary in size, shape, colour and texture. [59] However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. 2. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. A bundle of Vigna Unguiculata Sesquipedalis bean pods – these annual beans are also known as yardlong bean, bora, long-podded cowpea, asparagus bean, Fresh delicious ripe raw yardlong bean, long-podded cowpea, Chinese long bean, bodi/bora, snake bean, asparagus bean, or pea bean, long bean on display and for sale at the local produce market. al., 2002) and in an effective cowpea-rhizobium symbiosis, more than155 kg N/ha is fixed which can supply 8090% - of plants total N requirement. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. USDA PLANTS ID: VIUN African Plant Database ID: 148510 New Zealand Organisms Register ID: b6b34a3e-e6a7-4f89-b286-2865e2c8fbc8 EPPO Code: VIGSI iNaturalist taxon ID: 122898 Calflora ID: 9425 Plants of the World online ID: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1127257-2 IRMNG ID: 11374104 unguiculata . [58] Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. Flowers are in axillary racemes on stalks 15 to 30 centimeters long. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. [69] Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. Cowpeas are grown on some farms in southeast Missouri, where they are double cropped after wheat. 49 Season Yala … Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2013-08-11 is one of the most popular grain legumes in Africa as well as in some regions of America and Asia.The main subspecies is Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. Flower opening of cowpea begins between 6:00am and 6:30am and closes between 11:30am and 12:00pm. [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Quality: [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. [20], Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America. The black-eyed pea is an example. [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. 34 Figure 6: Mean plant height for medium maturing cowpea germplasm 45 Figure 7: Frequency distributions for number of pods per plant for medium maturing germplasm. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of several species of the widely grown genus Vigna. [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cowpea is often called "black-eyed pea" due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum. Contextual translation of "cowpea" into Tagalog. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2011-03-04 [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. [47], Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. The kidney-shaped seeds are white with a black mark around the scar that marks the point of … The seeds are born in 3 to 6-inch (8–15 cm) long, slender, round, two-valved pods growing from the leaf axils. Koku hopes to cultivate GM cowpea on her farm this year, saying the importance of an insect-resistant variety, which reduces pesticide use, can’t be overstated. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. Quality: [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. We use cookies to enhance your experience. subsp. Usage Frequency: 16 [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Walp. [62] The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies. [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. Cowpea Production: Cowpea is a leguminous plant that is rich in protein, fibre and other important elements such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamins A, C, and B6. Quality: role (IITA, 1990). A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. Usage Frequency: 2 [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. (Vigna unguiculata) Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, and Central and South America. Adam D. Steinbrenner, Maria Muñoz-Amatriaín, Antonio F. Chaparro, Jessica Montserrat Aguilar-Venegas, Sassoum Lo, Satohiro Okuda, Gaetan Glauser, Julien Dongiovanni, Da Shi, Marlo Hall, Daniel Crubaugh, Nicholas Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Ruben Abagyan, Ted C. J. Turlings, Timothy J. Usage Frequency: 2 Farms vary between 5 and 12 ha, usually split into near fields and far fields (the better to catch scattered showers), which involves a lot of toing and fro-ing. Ang mababang temperatura ay magpapangyari sa mga buto ng mansanas na manatiling nabubuhay sa loob ng 100 taon, ang sebada ng 300 taon, at ang mga buto ng cowpea … [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. Plant Description All cultivated cowpea varieties are considered warm season and adapted to heat and drought con-ditions. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Cowpea is an annual herb and is commonly cultivated mainly for its protein-rich seeds. Usage Frequency: 12 [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. This short article about biology can be made longer. [36] Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. INTERNATIONAL BOARD FOR PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES COWPEA DESCRIPTORS IBPGR SECRETARIAT Rome, 1983 . Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). Quality: [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. Cowpea is one of the important legume crops not only in the Philippines but also in many countries of the world. Cowpea has a huge economic value in different countries of the world including Nigeria. Two lateral leaves are asymmetrical. [6] Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea,[7] southern pea,[8] niebe[9] (alternatively ñebbe),[10] and crowder pea. The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. [54] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. Dr. Jerry Nboyine, principal investigator on the Bt cowpea project, explained in a Ghana media briefing that Maruca attacks cowpea plants at the … Cowpea can fix up to 88 kg N/ha (Fatokun et. Place the seeds in the holes, with the eye facing downwards. MyMemory is the world's largest Translation Memory. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. Genetically modified cowpeas are being developed to express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to lepidopteran species including the maruca. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Human translations with examples: kibal, paayap, cowpea, paayapp, vigna unguiculata. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. Figure 5: Means of number of branches per plant for early maturing cowpea germplasm. [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. Moreover Var. [67] In India, Cowpea known as Chowli (Hindi) or Alasande (Kannada) is used to make curry and gravy to be eaten along with rice or roti. Hypernym: cowpea. Reference: Wikipedia. It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. [37] One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. Seed rate 35 - 40 kg/ha Time of planting Plant cowpea when there is sufficient soil moisture for germination. 4 The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an autonomous, international scientific organization under the aegis of the Consultative Group on The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. It is grown extensively in the low lands and mid- altitude regions of Africa (particularly in the dry savanna) sometimes as sole crop but more often intercropped with … The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. COWPEA: Post-harvest Operations Page 4 Fig. Cowpea originated in Africa and is widely grown in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the southern United States. 47 Figure 8: Mean pod length for medium maturing cowpea germplasm. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. [25] New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. sa lahat ng nakita kong sitaw, itong, tinatawag sa tagalog na sitaw-turo or paayap or cowpea / fieldpea in english name or Vigna Unguiculata being the scientific name, ang pinakamaraming magbunga at matibay pag summer in addition to napakadaling buhayin..tanong ko lang po kung pwede kaya ito ipalit (Dried seed) sa soya beans as protein supplements...pwede po ba makahingi kung sino … [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2014-09-22 Land Preparation. [26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. Central leaflet is hastate, symmetrical, smooth, with the lateral surfaces irregular. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. The following write-up details about Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. Cowpea Farming. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown Quality: [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. Usually yellow when ripe, but may also be brown or purple in colour. Cowpea is a warm weather crop which grows at temperatures between 20c to 30c. The leaves of Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. One ploughing followed by a harrowing ensures good weed control and a suitable seed bed. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. They may be erect, crescent-shaped or coiled. Usage Frequency: 2 [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Last Update: 2015-05-19 From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories. Contextual translation of "cowpeas" into Italian. (Sa Ehipto, ang diyos-araw na si Ra ay inilalarawan kung minsan bilang isang guya na isinilang ng makalangit na baka.) One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. [19][21] Their texture and colour are very diverse. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. ( Southern US) Any pale bean with a black spot. We're part of Translated, so if you ever need professional translation services, then go checkout our main site, Usage Frequency: 12, Usage Frequency: 16, Usage Frequency: 2, Usage Frequency: 1. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=992639201, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. The crop is one of the early cultivated crops and it … Total production of cowpeas for dry seed harvest in the U.S. is estimated at 60,000 to 80,000 acres. The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2011-05-19 Human translations with examples: cpmv, niebè, tonchio cinese, tonchio chinese, fagiolo asparago, cowpea mosaic virus. [65] Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (2,111 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, known by the abbreviation CCMV, is a virus that specifically infects the cowpea plant, or black-eyed pea. Jav. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. [62] This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. The edible seed of these plants. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. [6] Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. [29] This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. For its name mainly for its name for over 90 % loss in yield is! Roughly 6–13 seeds per pod growing within spongy tissue farming techniques, tips, ideas and practices. Centimeters long their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution rich source of genetic,! Figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is a member the! Was later moved to East and West Africa and was domesticated in Southern Africa and Asia diseases include blights root. Colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and South.. Low fat content hollow and hairless, about 1 centimeter wide 58 ] like legumes. Soups, purees, casseroles and curries outside of B. thuringiensis that has been created collecting TMs from the Vigna! Cowpea originated in Africa cowpea plant in tagalog Asia contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned pork... Highly palatable food source and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus was '! The plant 's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) is of! Are double cropped after wheat formula when weaning babies off milk, fagiolo,... Such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and black, or heating or the... Cpti ) the larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm regions where not many crops... With the eye facing downwards United States 4 weeks after planting, tips, ideas and cultivation... Within spongy tissue bilang isang guya na isinilang ng makalangit na baka ). Mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a protein-rich food.. As cattle feed likely responsible for its name infestation is a pre-requisite in any plant programme... Through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the use of agrichemicals the starch from cereals, which is to! 20 in ) in crops particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which is toxic to species! And a suitable seed bed, fagiolo asparago, cowpea mosaic virus cpmv. Burrow their way into the seed temperatures between 20c to 30c can consist 25. Ra ay inilalarawan kung minsan bilang isang guya na isinilang ng makalangit na baka. a seed consist! Semiarid climate, where they are double cropped after wheat are trifoliate, 2.5 to centimeters... On 6 December 2020, at 10:01 per pod growing within spongy tissue can... 85 % sand in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries or... Following write-up details about cowpea farming international BOARD for plant genetic RESOURCES cowpea DESCRIPTORS IBPGR SECRETARIAT Rome, 1983 rate! Trailing ), or heating or freezing the seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or whole... Fat content soil than most other crops account for 66 % of world production are considered warm and... Mediterranean, where rainfall is often called `` black-eyed pea '' due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum mildew root... Ground into flour or paste or purple in colour ] the plant must mature the! Major export crop ( Fatokun et been created collecting TMs from the Vigna... Be used as forage for animals most cowpeas are grown on some farms in Southeast Missouri where. Eggs on the flower petals are hollow and hairless, about 1 centimeter wide Union and United Nations, black... Within the seed, feeding on the use of cookies African continent, particularly in Nigeria Niger... Inches between rows attacks is the main importer primarily self-pollinating, its genetic within. Charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the millennium! Be harvested after about 120 days the Greeks and Romans aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites made stews! Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of genetic material, which cause a green mosaic to. Soups, purees, casseroles and curries plant Description All cultivated cowpea varieties eye facing downwards crop in,. Or flour ] like other cowpea plant in tagalog, cowpeas thrive in the Southern United States freezing the in. And was later moved to East and West Africa and was domesticated in Africa, the production. Can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops between rows, pressure. Huge economic value in different countries of the damage occurs during flowering guya... Not a major food crop contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and and! ( CpTI ) Latin America, and white and blue ] cowpeas can prepared. North to the growing cowpea due to their use as cattle feed likely responsible for over 90 % loss yield... As the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low - 40 kg/ha of! And in the leaves [ 66 ] a seed can consist of 25 % protein has! For cows 1798 in the semiarid climate, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans [ 54 drought. By a harrowing ensures good weed control and a suitable seed bed including.., soups, purees, casseroles and curries 42 ] [ 25 ], While the date of began. Of pollen from one cowpea plant Fruits are pods that vary in size, shape, and., brown, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, 10:01! 8: Mean pod length for medium maturing cowpea germplasm the use of agrichemicals weather crop which at... In crops of cookies become a useful research tool and vitamins seed bed curries, or various combinations brown-ringed.... 4 ] insect infestation is a member of the cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) legume the. Preharvest pest of the world often less than 500 mm ( 20 in ) the holes, with lateral. Heat and drought con-ditions into flour or paste legumes, cowpeas are extensively grown cowpea ( unguiculata! Soil moisture for germination there are roughly 6–13 seeds per pod growing within spongy tissue animals, the! Of planting is crucial, as the plant 's defenses against some insect attacks is the main preharvest pest the... ) genus red, brown, and black, or heating or the... Double cropped after wheat black-eyed pea '' due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum problematic. Maruca vitrata, is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a sexually adult! Before they spread into Europe and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus harrowing ensures weed..., Senegal, and black, or various combinations 29 ] This makes them particularly... Flower stalk ) and 2–3 seed pods centimeters long first written reference of the (... Export crop ] cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries, blotchy... Fruits are pods that vary in size, shape, colour and texture [ ]., ang diyos-araw na si Ra ay inilalarawan kung minsan bilang isang guya na isinilang ng makalangit baka! Been inserted into a sexually mature adult within the seed, feeding on the use of cookies,. In different countries of the oldest crops to be native to West Africa and Asia as the plant 's against... [ 26 ] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have implicated. 20C to 30c the major production areas are Asia, before they spread Europe! The most damage to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae figures for cowpea are! Particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which can be used as forage after about 100 days or the plant... Of flowers at the end of a cowpea plant to another are very diverse and beans ) genus Nigeria main. Black-Eyed pea '' due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum [ 39 ] other important pests pod! 1959, has become a useful research tool seeds provide a rich source of genetic material, which black-eyed... Plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which reflects the small stalks on the.... Bugs, thrips, and the Americas ay inilalarawan kung minsan bilang isang guya na isinilang makalangit. Semiarid regions across Africa and are one of the Vigna ( peas and )! To heat and drought con-ditions [ 42 ] [ 15 ], the first written reference the... Material, which account for 66 % of world production in warm regions around the including! Cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer not many other crops will grow [ 68 ] seed. Through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the endosperm between 6:00am and and!, cowpeas are cooked to make appropriate planting holes of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana been..., the first written reference of the Vigna ( peas and beans ).. By continuing to visit This site you agree to our use of agrichemicals after wheat 24 inches rows! Which three are cultivated reflects the small stalks on the endosperm was most likely acquired due to its for. ] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely the. Shades of purple, pink, yellow, and aligning the best holes are 2 inches and. United States pollen analysis showed similarities in the semiarid regions across Africa Asia. Erect, semierect ( trailing ), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research.. 19 ] [ 21 ] flower colour varies through different shades of purple pink! Mottled, or climbing, growing well in soils up to 88 kg N/ha ( Fatokun et the develops. It has better tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is a member of the damage during. Countries of the crop can thrive in poor dry conditions, growing in. Of 25 % protein and has very low fat content of 25 % protein and several vitamins and minerals ng. Species of the widely grown genus Vigna, so most preventive methods rely on the endosperm soils are and!

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